Black & White on the Silver Screen

New Plaza Cinema hosted a presentation last week by film historian Max Alvarez on how the movie industry has portrayed black-white relations for roughly the last sixty years. For decades, Hollywood had chosen the safe path and avoided interracial stories, but toward the end of the 1950s, cracks started appearing in the film industry’s wall of opposition.

In both the United States and Europe, the trail-blazers were often independent filmmakers, who were less hampered by the challenges Hollywood faced. Independents were not as concerned about running afoul of local and regional censorship offices and, as a result, did not fall prey to the pattern of self-censorship affecting the big studios. It wasn’t just political timidity that made Hollywood reluctant; there were economic considerations as well. They were simply not willing to risk losing the Southern U.S. market. All of this conspired to create what Alvarez called “an untenable atmosphere for artists.”

The emergence and popularity of Miami-born actor Sidney Poitier helped shatter many taboos. The doctor he played in No Way Out (1950) and his breakout appearances in The Blackboard Jungle (1955) and The Defiant Ones (1958) showed that movies involving Black characters could be financially (and artistically) successful, even when they tackled sensitive topics. While his award-winning performances broke ground for Black characters (Lilies of the Field, 1963; A Patch of Blue, 1965; and To Sir with Love, 1967), he was criticized for taking on roles that were “too nice.” By the time Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner was released (1967), a white woman marrying a black man—especially if that man was Sidney Poitier—didn’t create the shock it would have a decade earlier; more important, it was a hit in Southern states too.

By 1967, Hollywood could no longer ignore the Civil Rights movement, and Black characters began having a more realistic edge. Tougher stories appeared. Although five years earlier, To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) had tackled the issue of Southern racism, it was set in the 1930s, letting audiences reassure themselves that “that was then.” In the Heat of the Night (1967) with Poitier and Rod Steiger (pictured) brought viewers up-to-date. The film included “the slap heard around the world,” when Poitier’s character, police detective Virgil Tibbs, returned the slap of a racist white plantation owner (an action Poitier insisted be in the script if he were to play the part).

The trope of the racist Southern sheriff was revisited in the 2018 film, Green Book, set in 1962, when classical and jazz pianist Don Shirley (Mahershala Ali) and his white driver are arrested. Unlike Virgil Tibbs, Shirley doesn’t hit back, he simply gets in touch with Bobby Kennedy. There still are racial justice stories to tell. Two brand new films available in streaming that delve into racial politics are HBOMax’s Judas and the Black Messiah, about the FBI informant who betrayed Black Panther leader Fred Hampton (trailer), and, on Hulu, The United States vs. Billie Holliday (trailer).

2 thoughts on “Black & White on the Silver Screen

  1. Interestingly, the period in American cinema to which you allude, the late 1960’s. gave way to the “Blackxploitation period” of the early 70’s. Movies like Melvin Van Peebles’ “Sweet Daddy Badass,” “Shaft,” and “Superfly” glorified an anti-white, anti-police themes while romanticizing the sordid aspects of ghetto life in our divided society. At the time some white critics called these movies “reverse racism.” Bill Cosby defended the movie craze saying it was “our turn now.” The craze continued with a bevy of black heroes like Jim Brown, Richard Roundtree, Fred Williamson, and beautiful Pam Greer in leading roles in action films. The craze lasted until the mid 70’s and then burned itself out. Now it seems to be coming back. Ironically, forty years later, “America’s favorite” dad is serving time in prison, the “woke” Hollywood culture has made the only safe villain a middle-aged white guy, and our country is more divided than ever. I long for the type of society where, as Martin Luther King said, we are judged by the content of our” character rather than the color of our skin.” Another quote from Dr. King that adorned my locker when I was on the job was “We must learn to live together as brothers, or we will perish together as fools.”

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